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梵格利亚葡萄酒庄:葡萄酒王国中的神话 变废为宝 垃圾在俄罗斯人手中重焕生机

印古什虽局势不稳,国内浪漫气息依然浓厚

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Ingushetia Republic (also spelled Ingushetiya) is situated in the northern part of Big Caucasus range, part of North Caucasian Federal District. Its administrative center and capital is Magas city.
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Ricardo Marquina

印古什共和国位于大高加索山脉北部,属北高加索联邦区管辖。马加斯为其首都和行政中心。
Ingushetia has borders with Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Chechen Republic and Georgia.

Ricardo Marquina

印古什共和国与北奥塞梯 - 阿兰共和国,车臣共和国和格鲁吉亚接壤。
The highest point is Gora Shan (4451 m).

Ricardo Marquina

境内海拔最高点是:戈拉山(4451米)。
A 150 km stretch of the Caucasus Mountains runs through the territory of the republic. The major rivers are: Terek River, Assa River, Sunzha River.

Ricardo Marquina

绵延150公里的高加索山脉贯穿共和国境内。主要河流有:捷列克河,阿萨河和松扎河。
There are oil and natural gas fields, supplies of limestones, clay, mineral waters in the region. Forests are also national wealth of Ingushetia.

Ricardo Marquina

该地盛产石油和天然气,石灰岩,粘土和矿物质水。印古什共和国同时拥有丰富的森林资源。
Ingushetia boasts natural attractions and ancient monuments, fabulous landscapes and mineral springs.

Ricardo Marquina

印古什拥有迷人的景观,古老的遗迹,秀丽的风景和甘甜的矿泉。
There are about 1500 monuments of history and culture, among which 100 are tower-like settlements.

Ricardo Marquina

国内有约1500座历史和文化古迹,其中有100座塔型定居点。
The most ancient of them are two (or more) storied towers used for living or military purposes.

Ricardo Marquina

其中最古老的是两层(或多层)塔,曾用于居住或军事目的。
In terms of civil organization, clans continue to exist. They are still strictly exogamous, and they determine social relationship and social behavior.

Ricardo Marquina

部族仍以民间组织的形式存在。他们依旧严禁异族通婚,成员需遵守部族社会的人际关系,恪守其行为准则。
An individual respects all members of a clan. For instance, a man shows to all female members of his mother's clan the same deference and formality that he would show to his mother's older sister.

Ricardo Marquina

个人要尊重部族的所有成员。例如,男子不但要对其母亲的姐姐表示出应有的尊重和礼貌,对其母亲所属部族的每一位女性都要如此。
Even urban residents generally know and pass on to their children a good deal of information about their clan's and family's provenience. That is why lots of temples and barrows (necropolises) were constructed.

Ricardo Marquina

即使是城镇居民也大都了解这一习俗,并会将有关家族和部族起源的历史信息传承给自己的子孙。这也是人们大兴土木建造寺庙和墓群的原因。
Traditionally, an Ingush or Chechen man is expected to know the names and birthplaces or origins of his paternal ancestors through seven generations.

Ricardo Marquina

按照传统,印古什人或车臣人应该能记住七代父系祖先的名字、出生地或是祖籍。
Since antiquity the Caucasus has been famed for the sheer number of languages and for the exotic grammatical structures.

Ricardo Marquina

自古以来,高加索地区就以语言种类之多和语法结构之奇特而闻名。
Destruction of lowlands economic centers by Mongol incursions probably created a power vacuum which left the languages of the countryside and uplands - Ingush and Chechen - in a stronger sociolinguistic position.

Ricardo Marquina

蒙古人的入侵摧毁了低洼地区的经济中心,造成了权力真空,使得乡村和高原地区的语言,即印古什语和车臣语,成为了该区的社交语言。
In the 17th century, the present Ingush lowlands were entirely Ingush-speaking and the highlands were impoverished. This period of economic hardship coincided with the Russian conquest of the Caucasus which lasted from the late 1500's to the mid-1800's.

Ricardo Marquina

在17世纪,现在的印古什低地全都是讲印古什语的人,而高原地区的人则贫困不堪。这个经济困难时期,正是俄罗斯征服高加索地区的战争时期,这场战争从16世纪晚期持续到19世纪中期。
The Russian military depopulated most of the Ingush highlands, deporting the population to the lowlands so as to create a no-man's-land between the Russian fort of Vladikavkaz and the Chechens, who in alliance with Daghestanian mountain peoples were offering organized resistance to conquest. Lowland Chechen were slaughtered, deported, or expelled and replaced with (ethnically Russian) Cossacks.

Ricardo Marquina

俄罗斯的入侵,造成了印古什高地人口骤减,他们将印古什人赶到低地,以便在俄罗斯弗拉季高加索要塞和车臣之间形成一个无人区。车臣人和达吉斯坦山区人民结盟,对俄罗斯征服者进行了有组织的抵抗。低地的车臣人遭到了残酷的屠杀和驱逐,还有一部分被(俄罗斯少数民族)哥萨克人所取代。
Perhaps because the golden age of Russian literature, which romanticized the Caucasian war, coincided with the conquest of the Chechen, or perhaps because the Chechen were the most numerous lowlands group, or perhaps because of their fierce and prolonged resistance, the Chechen came to epitomize imperial Russian disdain for "Asiatics" and have been vilified and demonized in Russian literature, popular media, and political discourse to the present day.

Ricardo Marquina

或许是因为俄国文学的黄金时代赋予了与车臣战争同期的高加索战争过多的浪漫主义色彩,或许是因为车臣是低地人口最多的民族,亦或是因为车臣人长期顽强的抵抗,成为遭到鄙视的“亚洲人”抗击俄罗斯帝国的典范,才导致今天的车臣人在俄罗斯文学、大众媒体甚至是政治评论中被无情地诋毁乃至妖魔化。
2012年10月22日
标签: 北高加索旅游景点俄中旅游

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