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俄罗斯美女:流行歌手波琳娜·加加林娜 俄罗斯超级工厂之都—下卡姆斯克

亚马尔半岛上数世纪未曾改变的生活方式

亚马尔-涅涅茨自治区的少数民族
来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
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Izvor:Aleksandar Romanov

冬季开始的时候,许多萨莫耶人会迁徙至南边的森林边缘,2月至3月他们会反向迁回到夏季牧场。但是也有一些人为了猎熊,会在喀拉海海岸边过冬。
The Yamal peninsula is located 3,600 km from Moscow. Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District (YNAD) is one of the few regions of Russia traversed by the Arctic Circle.

Alexander Romanov

亚马尔半岛距离莫斯科3,600公里。亚马尔-涅涅茨自治区(YNAD)是俄罗斯为数不多穿越北极圈的地区之一。
YNAD is home to such major cities as Salekhard, Novy Urengoy, Nadym and Noyabrsk. Among the heroines of these photographs are representatives of different nations, such as the Komi, Nenets and Selkup.

Alexander Romanov

萨列哈尔德、新乌连戈伊、纳德姆和诺亚布尔斯克等主要城市均位于亚马尔-涅涅茨自治区。这些照片上的女主人公代表着科米族、 涅涅茨族和塞尔库普族等不同民族。
In 1909 Boris Zhitkov, an explorer and researcher of the Russian Far North, kept a log of his travels on the Yamal peninsula, focusing on the local people, the weather conditions and the fauna of the peninsula.

Alexander Romanov

1909年,致力于俄罗斯远北地区研究的探险家鲍里斯•日特科夫(Boris Zhitkov)将其在亚马尔半岛的游历记录了下来,内容包括当地人文环境、天气条件以及动物种群。
In his “Brief Report on Traveling on the Yamal Peninsula,” Zhitkov interprets the name of the peninsula as such: “Yamal, the name of the peninsula in the Samoyedic language, is made up of the words 'ya' (land) and 'mal' (end).”

Alexander Romanov

在其“亚马尔半岛旅游简记”中,日特科夫诠释了亚马尔半岛的名称由来:“亚马尔,取自萨莫耶语,由‘ya ’(土地)和‘mal ’(尽头)两个词组成。”
Yamal is inhabited mainly by Samoyeds, a group of northern nomadic peoples who, according to the observations of Zhitkov, “are expert navigators even in completely smooth tundra, can easily sketch a plan of the terrain in snow or sand, and quickly orientate themselves when presented with any geographical map.”

Alexander Romanov

亚马尔半岛的主要居民是北方游牧民族—萨莫耶人。根据日特科夫的说法,“甚至在完全平滑的冻土层上,他们都是熟练的领航员,他们可以轻松地绘制出雪下或沙下的地形图,借助任何一张地图都可以迅速找到自己的方位。”
Almost 50% of the population of the indigenous peoples are educated to primary and lower secondary level; 17% of them are completely illiterate.

Alexander Romanov

几乎50%的原住民都是小学和初中文化水平;17%的人目不识丁。
Almost all Samoyeds are fishermen. Fish for them is a staple food, along with venison.

Alexander Romanov

几乎所有的萨莫耶人都会捕鱼。鱼是他们的主食,当然还有鹿肉。
Reindeer herding is the main occupation of these peoples. Deerskin is used to build yurts and sew clothes, and the meat of the animals is eaten or sold in urban markets.

Alexander Romanov

放牧鹿群是这些居民的主要工作。鹿皮被用来建造圆顶帐篷及缝制衣服,鹿肉则被食用或拿到城市里面销售。
Besides deer and bears, Samoyeds hunt Arctic fox and marine pinnipeds.

Alexander Romanov

除了鹿和熊,萨莫耶人还会狩猎白狐和海洋鳍足类动物。
Family relations are patriarchal, and women do not like to pose for photographers because of superstitious fears.

Alexander Romanov

萨摩耶族的家庭关系是族长制。出于迷信,妇女们不喜欢对着摄像机照相。
“Most Samoyeds are officially listed as pagans, but are in fact indifferent to religion. Nevertheless, there are numerous sites of sacrificial worship,” wrote Zhitkov in 1909.

Alexander Romanov

“大多数的萨莫耶人被官方列为异教徒,但事实上他们对宗教漠不关心。不过,也有很多崇拜祭祀的例证,”日特科夫1909年游历中提及。
Today some of the northern peoples remain pagans, while some have become Orthodox Christians or Baptists, and others have adopted Christian saints as additional members of the pagan pantheon of gods.

Alexander Romanov

今天,一些北方居民仍然是异教徒,不过也有一些人已经成为东正教或浸礼会教徒,还有人接受基督教教徒作为异教万神殿的额外成员。
Faith tends to be a highly intimate subject for minor nations in Russia, since they have memories of Orthodox and Soviet persecution. According to the testimony of photographers and other guests of these peoples, all that can be gleaned about them are scraps of information and common facts — as soon as the conversation goes deeper or touches the here and now, the topic immediately changes.

Alexander Romanov

在俄罗斯,由于经历过东正教和苏联迫害,对于少数民族来说,信仰是个比较私密的话题。根据摄影师和到访过这里的游客体会,所有能收集到的关于信仰的信息都是只言片语或眼前看到的表象。一旦深入交谈或涉及到具体的现实,话题会立刻转移。
2015年1月29日
标签: 社会俄罗斯人女性北极亚马尔半岛

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