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“11月7日”煤矿:俄罗斯最古老煤炭企业 17幅俄罗斯画家静物写生作品

俄罗斯精神疾病患者的生活

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Boarding homes are public houses for hundreds of people with mental and physical disabilities, for the ill, the homeless, and the elderly.
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Gordon Welters / Laif

寄宿之家是收留患有精神疾病、身体残疾、生病、无家可归人士以及老年人的公共机构,可容纳数百人。
Provided with basic necessities, some of the residents stay in their beds all day long.

Gordon Welters / Laif

这里提供基本生活必需品。一些寄宿者只能整天躺在床上。
This boarding house is located in the outskirts of a Saint Petersburg district.

Gordon Welters / Laif

这处寄宿之家位于圣彼得堡郊区。
This one differs in its approach to its residents. The differently-abled are helped using work therapy, which allows many of them to learn a profession and a job. In addition, the boarding houses also features a department for social adaptation.

Gordon Welters / Laif

这里帮助寄宿者的方式很特别,针对不同程度的残障人士实施不同的“工作疗法”,以使他们掌握一些职业技能。此外,寄宿之家还设有社会抚养部。
"Our permanent residents are very sensitive. If one of them dies, it's a tragedy for everybody else," the caregiver shares.

Gordon Welters / Laif

寄宿之家护理员表示,“我们的常住患者非常敏感。如果有一个人死去,对他们所有人来说都是一个打击。”
"Our patients should always be occupied with something. That leaves less time for foolishness. Sports, walks, nature trips are all an important component of their life. It allows them to expend any pent-up energy and set new goals for themselves. Of course, there are some lazy bones among them just like there are among all other people," says the caregiver.

Gordon Welters / Laif

护理员称,“这里的病人需要不停地做事情,以减少处于病态的时间。运动、散步及在大自然中游玩都是他们生活的重要内容。这有助于他们释放压抑,并帮助他们树立新的生活目标。当然,与其他人群一样,他们中也会有懒惰的人。”
There are several departments at a boarding house: a rehabilitation center where patients can work and study; a department for wheelchair-bound patients and those born with birth defects; a men's ward; and a department for senior citizens and learning-impaired individuals (for example, those with severe mental handicaps).

Gordon Welters / Laif

寄宿之家设有用于患者工作学习的康复中心、残障人士及先天性疾病患者服务部、病房、老年患者及患有学习障碍症人士(如严重精神障碍者)看护部等数个部门。
"It's hard to understand what [the patients] want at first. But after you've worked here for many years, you know each of them and understand what they're saying," the caregiver tells.

Gordon Welters / Laif

护理员称,“开始的时候很难理解病人的需求,但在这工作了几年后,已了解了他们每一个人,并能听懂他们说的话。”
It's not easy to guess patients' age the first time round. For many here, it's as if they've been "preserved".  The same thing happens to their intellect. It stops at a certain level that it won't go any further. For a lot of people, once they reach 30, their minds start to deteriorate.

Gordon Welters / Laif

最初很难判断病人的年纪。这里的很多人仿佛经过了“防腐处理”。他们的智力发生了同样的问题,停留在某个阶段不再发展。很多人到30岁时智力便开始衰退。
"They understand that they're living in a boarding house, not their own home. Some of them understand that they're different. Maybe it's easier for the ones who don't comprehend this," the caregiver opines.

Gordon Welters / Laif

护理员说,“他们明白自己住在寄宿之家,而不是在自己家里。有些人知道自己与别人不同。而对那些不了解这一点的人来说,也许会生活得更容易些。”
One caregiver tells how some patients make declarations that it's better out in the free world. But those who have a clearer idea of things answer back, “Do you know how to live out there? Try paying for everything yourself and we’ll see.” They ask the caregiver how much utilities cost and are horrified by the amount. They understand that living here is easier.

Gordon Welters / Laif

一位护理员说,有的患者宣称外面自由世界的生活更好。但那些意识清醒的患者会回复道,“你知道如何在外面生活吗?你自己试试负担所有东西,让我们看看。”当他们询问护理员水电煤气等费用时,被价格吓到了。他们明白生活在这里要容易得多。
There are also occasions when patients fully adjusted to live on their own leave the boarding house. Some manage to live on their own, others return.

Gordon Welters / Laif

有时候,病人完全康复后会离开寄宿之家,重新自己生活。有的人有能力独立生活,有的人还会回到这里。
“They receive a pension for disabilities, save money, and then head off to the shops with the caregivers. Some people buy gadgets, others buy clothes. They can get some clothes at the boarding house for free, but its quality is not high,” explains the caregiver.

Gordon Welters / Laif

护理员解释说,“患者会收到残疾人救济金,并把钱存起来,然后在护理人员的陪同下去商店。有的人买些小工具,有的人买衣服。他们可以在寄宿之家免费获得一些衣物,但质量都不太好。”
Visitors to the boarding house leave it with mixed emotions. On the one hand, these people are sick, on the other many of them are very friendly, kind-hearted and completely capable of leading a normal life.

Gordon Welters / Laif

参观者怀着复杂的心情离开了寄宿之家。一方面,这里的人们饱受病痛;另一方面,他们中很多人友好而善良,完全有能力过正常的生活。
People with handicaps are vulnerable in every country, but in the West they're usually treated more carefully than in Russia. Here, they’re mostly outcasts. And there is a lack of buzz around their problems in the media.

Gordon Welters / Laif

残障人士在每个国家都是易受伤害人群,但在西方国家他们普遍会得到比在俄罗斯更细致的照顾。在这里他们大多被遗弃,而媒体对这一人群的困境很少给予关注。
2014年7月30日
标签: 医疗疾病俄罗斯生活

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