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无尽荒原的乌拉尔地区 地图上的“胎记”见证下的普通西伯利亚人的生活

莫斯科:注定成为俄罗斯首都的城市

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
The city of Moscow gradually grew around the Moscow Kremlin, beginning in the 14th century. It was the capital of Great Russia, also known as Muscovy, from 1340 to 1712.
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Provided by Ilya Varlamov

14世纪开始,以克林姆林宫为中心,莫斯科市逐渐发展起来。1340至1712年期间,莫斯科一直是俄罗斯帝国的首都。
The first reference to Moscow dates from 1147. At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

公元1147年,第一次出现了有关莫斯科的文字记载。当时,莫斯科还只是弗拉基米尔-苏兹达里公国西部边境的一座小城镇。
Moscow was stable and prosperous for many years. In 1340 it was declared the capital instead of the city of Vladimir.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

多年以来,莫斯科得到了稳定发展并逐渐繁荣起来。1340年,莫斯科取代弗拉基米尔市成为俄国首都。
400 years ago, in 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities rose against the troops of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which were occupied Moscow for two years. Russians besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

400年前的1612年,下诺夫哥罗德和其他城市的民众团结起来反抗占领莫斯科长达2年之久的波兰和立陶宛联军。俄罗斯民众包围了克林姆林宫,将入侵者赶走。
300 years ago, Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital when Peter the Great moved his government to the newly-built Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast in 1712.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

300年前,莫斯科不再是俄罗斯的首都。彼得大帝于1712年迁都至其在波罗的海沿岸新建的城市——圣彼得堡。
After being ruled it from the status of capital, the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the 17th century to 130,000 in 1750.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

不再是首都后,莫斯科人口数量逐渐减少,从17世纪初到1750年,人口从20万下降至13万。
But after 1750, the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1.8 million by 1915.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

1750年至苏联成立前,莫斯科人口数量增长超过10倍。1915年时,莫斯科总人口已达到180万人。
Moscow Governorate was established in 1708, by Tsar Peter the Great's edict. There were 38 cities besides Moscow in this Governorateat the time of its establishment. It was finally abolished in 1929, paved the way to modern Moscow Oblast.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

1708年,沙皇彼得大帝下令成立莫斯科省。除莫斯科市外,省内还管辖38座城市。1929年,莫斯科省被取消,这为现代莫斯科州的形成铺平了道路。
200 years ago, in 1812, the city was almost destroyed during the Napoleon invasion. All the Moscovites were evacuated.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

200年前的1812年,拿破仑军队入侵后,莫斯科市几乎完全被摧毁。所有市民被紧急疏散。
In 1813 a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial replanning of the city-center.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

1813年,莫斯科城市建设委员会成立,并推出了宏大的重建计划,其中包括对部分市中心区域的重新规划。
In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

1905年1月 ,莫斯科市设立市长一职,亚历山大·阿德里亚诺夫(Alexander Adrianov)成为莫首任市长。
100 years ago, in 1912 there were 1 617 157 inhabitants in the city.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

100年前的1912年,莫斯科居民人数达到1,617,157人。
In the beginning of 20th century Moscow was the Russia's second urban and manufacturing centre after Saint Petersburg.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

20世纪初,莫斯科成为继圣彼得堡市之后的俄罗斯第二大城市和制造业中心。
Occupational composition of the city's labor force was generally diverce, despite the heaviest concentration in textiles.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

尽管莫斯科纺织业比较集中,但劳动力职业构成总体呈现多样化。
Since 1905, several strikes and armed risings in Moscow paved the way to the October Revolution. In 1918 the Bolsheviks moved the seat of government from Saint Petersburg back to Moscow.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

从1905年开始,莫斯科发生了多次罢工和武装起义,这为10月革命的成功铺平了道路。1918年,布尔什维克党将政府所在地从圣彼得堡迁回莫斯科。
90 years ago, in December 1922 Moscow was declared the capital of the newly emerged Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Provided by Ilya Varlamov

90年前的1922年12月,莫斯科被宣布成为新成立的苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟首都。
2013年1月3日
标签: 莫斯科历史

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