RBTH RBTH RBTH RBTH RBTH RBTH RBTH RBTH RBTH
世界各地舒霍夫式建筑纵览 万千美誉集一身:“俄罗斯小姐”是怎样炼成的?

古拉格 修道院 旅游地——不同角色下的索洛维茨基

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Located in the White Sea in northwestern Russia, Arkhangelsky Region, the Solovetsky Islands one housed one of Russia’s first gulags, but now its centuries-old monastery and the seascape’s stark beauty attracts thousands of tourists and the spiritually inclined.
向下滚动查看更多

Dmitry Porechniy

索洛维茨基群岛位于俄罗斯西北部白海沿岸,所属于阿尔汉格尔斯克州。俄罗斯第一座古拉格劳改营就建于此地,如今这里具有百年历史的修道院及天然海景吸引着成千上万的旅游者心向往之。
The Solovetsky Monastery was an outpost for the colonisation of northern Russia. It existed almost autonomously –– the monastery was rich and influential, and had its own schools, factories, army, and navy, and its library was one of the most valuable in the Tsarist Russia.

Dmitry Porechniy

索洛维茨基修道院曾经是俄罗斯北部殖民化的前沿阵地。由于修道院富有且极具影响力,几乎完全自治,并且拥有自己的学校、工厂、陆军、海军以及沙俄时期最有价值的图书馆之一。
But during the socialist revolution of 1917, the monastery was looted and devastated. In the 1920s, the Solovki Special Purpose Camp (SLON) was founded here, the first in a network of concentration camps that from then on encircled all of Russia.

Dmitry Porechniy

但在1917年社会主义革命时期,修道院被洗劫并遭到破坏。20世纪20年代,第一座劳改集中营“索洛维茨基特别监狱(SLON)”在这里建成,从此劳改营的建立遍及整个俄罗斯。
Barely 100 miles from the arctic circle, The Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea breathes history, mixing the secular and the spiritual. At one time, there was a prison here, no less grim than France’s Bastille, the United States’ Alcatraz, and Poland’s Auschwitz. Hundreds of thousands of inmates of the Solovki Camp died here.

Dmitry Porechniy

距离北极圈仅100英里的白海索洛维茨基群岛,见证了世俗与精神掺杂的过往历史。某段岁月里,这里是一座监狱,环境甚至比法国的巴士底狱、美国的恶魔岛以及波兰的奥斯维辛更加恶劣。数以十万计的囚犯死在了索洛维茨基劳改营。
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, locals went to the mainland –– there was no work on the islands. But now there is a reverse flow of people. For many, Solovki is a place to experience the ongoing revival of traditional Russian culture and spirituality. Today, the Solovki Islands, which now fall under the protection of the UNESCO World Heritage Center, are a tourist destination and can be freely accessed by anyone.

Dmitry Porechniy

苏联解体后,由于岛上没有工作,当地人纷纷前往大陆。但现在人们逐渐返回这里。对于许多人来说,索洛维茨基是一个体验俄罗斯传统文化和实现精神复兴的地方。今天,在联合国教科文组织世界遗产中心保护下的索洛维茨基岛是一个任何人都可以自由访问的旅游目的地。
The unfortunate downside of Solovki's new popularity as a tourist destination is that the island is losing its atmosphere of deserted sanctuary. Well, that's globalization a-coming, and nobody can stop it. Getting to the islands, however, is not easy.

Dmitry Porechniy

作为新近流行旅游目的地的索洛维茨基有一个不幸的缺点—其荒无人烟避难所的氛围正在逐渐消失。的确,没人能阻挡全球化的浪潮。不过,前往这些岛屿却并不容易。
The best tourist cruise ship to call here — the Vissarion Belinsky — runs on a slightly confusing timetable, and, during the short summer navigation season, there are only a tiny number of trips. Every Sunday, there is a feast in the village. A procession of songs and Church banners snakes around the monastery. Bells ring, the parishioners carry icons, and priests sprinkle holy water on the crowd.

Dmitry Porechniy

这里最棒的“维萨里昂·别林斯基号”游轮却按照有些令人费解的时间表运行,在短暂的夏日通航季节中,只有为数不多的几趟航行。每到星期天,村里将举行一场盛宴。修道院四周围满了歌唱的队伍,挂满了横幅。钟声响起,教徒们手捧着圣像,牧师向前来祈祷的人们播洒着圣水。
One of the islands, Anzer or Anzersky, has been declared a “strict nature reserve zone.” In other words, access to it is restricted year round. However, during the winter, access to all the islands becomes restricted, including the only inhabitable island: Bolshoy (Big) Solovetsky.

Dmitry Porechniy

群岛之一的“安泽尔或称安泽尔斯基”已被宣布为“严格自然保护区”。换言之,对这里的访问全年都将受到限制。而且冬季时,所有岛屿的访问都被限制,包括其中唯一可居住的“大索洛韦茨基岛”。
One of the major attractions is the lighthouse-church on Sekirnaya Mountain. At the very top of it, under the cross, is a huge lamp active as a lighthouse. Everything below the lamp is the property of the monastery, but the lamp belongs to the Ministry of Defence, so it’s off limits to tourists as it’s a strategic facility.

Dmitry Porechniy

位于谢基尔山的灯塔教堂是主要景点之一。教堂最顶端的十字架下挂着一盏尚在使用的大灯,其作为战略设施,属于国防部所有,因此不向游客开放。灯下面的一切则均为修道院财产。
In the winter, tourist activity on the Solovetsky Islands falls to zero: it’s only possible to get there by plane if everything works out with the weather. There aren’t any water routes to the islands until May.

Dmitry Porechniy

冬季,索洛维茨基群岛的旅游活动几乎为零:如果天气情况良好的话,那么飞机是唯一可以到达那里的交通工具。直到五月,岛屿上的游船才会通航。
Ten people come to the islands in the winter. In the best case, you can get to Sekirnaya Mountain, Negotiation Rock, or Muksalma Island on snowmobiles. The archipelago’s other islands have absolutely no route to access them. Closed souvenir shops, bike rental booths buried in snow banks, and locked hotels and cafes greet the seldom guest to the snow-covered village of Solovetsky.

Dmitry Porechniy

冬季,十个人来到了这片岛屿。在最好的情况下,可以乘雪地摩托到达谢基尔山、协商石或大穆克萨尔马岛。不过无法抵达群岛的其他岛屿。关闭的纪念品商店、埋在雪中的自行车出租亭以及锁着的酒店和咖啡馆迎接着极少数来到白雪皑皑的索洛维茨基村庄的游客。
During the summer months (July and August, in June it is too cold, and it is already too cold in September), four of Solovki’s five residents work with tourists one way or another. All local residents—laymen and monks—participate in a Sovoletsky marathon of tourists: thirty tourists to one inhabitant. Only a handful of people work indirectly in the tourism industry in the winter.

Dmitry Porechniy

夏季期间(七月和八月,六月太冷,九月也已经很冷),五个索洛维茨基岛居民中就有四个以这样或那样的方式从事与旅游相关的工作。由于游客与当地居民的比率为30比1,因此无论是普通教徒还是僧侣,所有的当地居民都参与到了索洛维茨基有如“马拉松”的旅游接待中。冬季,则只有极少数人间接从事旅游工作。
For many of the islands’ residents, winter is the only time they can bring their household to order. The islanders can rely on themselves in the winter: they repair their own stoves, take care of their own kids, tidy up their UAZs and Land Cruisers, take their snowmobiles out on Lake Svyatoye, ski through the Makarevskaya Desert, and fish on Bolshoye Krasnoye Lake. They enjoy their downtime until the next summer.

Dmitry Porechniy

对于岛上的许多居民而言,冬季是他们唯一可以支配自己生活的时间。冬天,岛民们自己修灶台、照顾孩子、收拾乌里杨诺夫斯克汽车和越野车、在圣湖上驾驶雪地摩托、在马卡里耶夫沙漠上滑雪、在大红湖中钓鱼。直到第二年夏天前,他们可以一直享受自己的休息时光。
Every Sunday, there is a feast in the village. A procession of songs and Church banners snakes around the monastery. Bells ring, the parishioners carry icons, and priests sprinkle holy water on the crowd.

Dmitry Porechniy

每到星期天,村里将举行一场盛宴。修道院四周围满了歌唱的队伍,挂满了横幅。钟声响起,教徒们手捧着圣像,牧师向前来祈祷的人们播洒着圣水。
It seems as if all the islanders take part in the procession. Here in Solovki, it’s easy to be a believer. It helps that the monastery’s domes are visible from any part of the island, and there is the sweet sound of bells, far from the worldly temptations of big cities.

Dmitry Porechniy

似乎岛上的所有居民都加入到了队伍中来。由于在索洛维茨基岛上的任何地方都可以看到修道院的穹顶、都能听到教堂的优美钟声,再加上这里远离大城市的世俗诱惑,因此来这儿的人很容易成为一名信徒。
2014年3月9日
标签: 旅游景点俄中旅游

阅读更多