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俄罗斯美女:芭蕾舞演员纳塔利娅·奥西波娃 叶尼塞河的极寒美景:冰河莽莽雾凇俏

活力的自信绽放:透视苏联初期的完美女性形象

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Today, the debate about the female body, the “model” measurements and the media's objectivation of women is more heated than ever. Back in the 1930s and 40s, meanwhile, the feminine ideal was toned and athletic, not thin; well-groomed, but not too much; working, but still committed to family values. How do these parameters compare with today’s? // Girl with a Drill, 1937
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Alexander Samokhvalov

在当今社会,关于女性身材的辩论、对“模特”三围标准的界定、有关媒体对女性如何客观化报道的探讨比以往任何时候都激烈。在20世纪30、40年代,完美女性身材的标准是丰满健壮,而非苗条;干净整洁,但不要太夸张;参加工作,但仍遵从家庭价值。这些标准到了今天有哪些变化?//《拿着钻头的女孩》(1937年)
The ideals of female beauty vary from decade to decade. Changes in the political situation are forever spurring the formation of new images and ideals that flow from life into art and vice versa. The classic female images of the early Soviet era (the 1920s and 30s) can be seen in the posters of Alexander Rodchenko, the pictures of Alexander Deyneka, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin and Alexander Samokhvalov (1894-1971), whom we shall discuss. // Sportswoman, 1928

Alexander Samokhvalov

完美女性的形象数十年来一直变化着。政治形势变化永远刺激着新形象和典范的塑造,这些受推崇的新形象从生活走向艺术,又通过艺术影响生活。苏联早期(20世纪20、30年代)的经典女性形象能在亚历山大·罗琴科(Aleksandr Rodchenko)、亚历山大· 杰伊涅卡(Aleksandr Deyneka)、库兹玛·彼得罗夫-沃特金(Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin)以及我们将要讨论的亚历山大·萨默克瓦洛夫(Aleksandr Samokhvalov)(1894-1971)的海报画中看到。// 《女运动员》(1928年)
Soviet art in the 1920s was almost devoid of eroticism. The air was still fresh in the 20s: the avant garde was burning up and dying out, and folk believed in domesticity, common pursuits and shared love. A free and cheerful disposition was the order of the day, and the naked body was not perceived as something intimate. // Waitress. Study for the painting “Meeting of Friends,” 1945

Alexander Samokhvalov

上世纪20年代的苏联艺术几乎全无情色元素。20年代的艺术氛围仍然很清新自由:先锋派异军突起,尽管最终逐渐淡出人们的视野;当时人们仍旧坚信家庭、共同追求和分享爱的重要性。自由而开朗的性格在当时倍受推崇,赤裸和暴露并不被视作非常私密的事情。//《女服务员》,绘画《好友聚会》的研究,1945年
From the late 1920s onwards, internal politics began to “tighten the screws.” Many artistic themes and techniques were banned. Anything outside the realm of social realism was labeled “petty” and “philistine.” That included the genre of nu or nude painting, which soon became categorized as petit bourgeois. // Young worker, 1928

Alexander Samokhvalov

从20世纪20年代后期起,国内政治开始“拧紧螺丝”,许多艺术主题和绘画方式都被禁止。任何社会现实主义领域外的事情都被贴上“小资”和“庸俗”的标签,其中包括很快被归为小资产阶级类别的裸体风尚和裸体绘画。// 《年轻工人》(1928年)
In the 1930s hierarchy of “legitimate” female images, pride of place was given to the image of the working mother. There were others, too, which became almost archetypes impressed in the Soviet consciousness: the technical college student, the factory worker, the farm girl, the sportswoman. Within the framework of these images, artists were free to do as they pleased. // “Women Delegates,” 1939

Alexander Samokhvalov

20世纪30年代最关键的“正统”女性形象就是工作母亲。此外,还有一些原型几乎决定了苏联民众意识中对女性的认知:技术学院学生、工人、农场女孩和女运动员。艺术家们在这些形象的框架内能自由创作他们钟爱的艺术。//《妇女代表》(1939年)
The pioneers of Soviet art saw their primary task as divining the pictures of the future in the day-to-day affairs of their contemporaries. One of the brightest portents of the future was perceived in the emergence of a new type of woman: vivacious, self-assured and resplendent in her certitude. // “Physical Education Teacher with Bouquet,” 1935

Alexander Samokhvalov

苏联艺术先驱把从当下日复一日的生活中提炼未来图景视为己任。对未来最光明的刻画之一就是新女性的出现:活泼、自信并从中绽放华美。//《捧着花束的体育老师》(1935年)
Imagine it’s the early 1930s. The All-Union Komsomol High-Impact Construction Team has just announced the construction of the Moscow Metro. Over 13,000 Komsomol volunteers are helping to sink the first shaft. // “Lenin’s Way Commune: Field Workers A. Fedorova and A. Egorova” series, 1930-1931

Alexander Samokhvalov

请设想一下20世纪30年代初的苏联。全苏共青团高影响施工队刚刚宣布莫斯科地铁的建设。超过1.3万名共青团志愿者共同挖掘首个竖井。// 《列宁大道公社:野外工作者A·菲德洛娃和A·叶戈罗娃》系列(1930-1931年)
Komsomol girls were among the first volunteers. They inspired artist Alexander Samokhvalov, a disciple of the renowned Petrov-Vodkin. His famous watercolor series “Metro Construction Girls” was first shown at an exhibition in Leningrad in 1934. // “Metro Construction Girl at the Conrete Mixer,” 1937

Alexander Samokhvalov

共青团女孩也在第一批志愿者中。她们激发了著名艺术家彼得罗夫-沃特金的徒弟——艺术家亚历山大·萨默克瓦洛夫的灵感。他著名的水彩画系列《地铁建设女孩》于1934年首次在列宁格勒展出。// 《混凝土搅拌机边的地铁建设女孩》(1937年)
“Before Showering,” “Girl with a Shovel,” “Girl with a Drill” and others. In some pictures, the candid admiration of the flushed female form reaches such intensity that it becomes a little disconcerting. // Girl with a Shovel, 1934

Alexander Samokhvalov

此外还有《沐浴前》《拿着铁铲的女孩》《拿着钻头的女孩》等作品。在一些画作中,画家对工作得满脸通红的女性进行了坦诚赞赏,画家对此的赞美力度有些令人不安。// 《拿着铁铲的女孩》(1934年)
Unfortunately, the identity of Samokhvalov’s model is unknown. We only know that it was painted around 1932-1934, when the artist came to Moscow from St. Petersburg. Samokhvalov had difficulty obtaining permission to observe his muses as they worked to build a tunnel. // Female Construction Worker, 1934

Alexander Samokhvalov

遗憾的是,萨默克瓦洛夫的模特身份不详。我们只知道作品创作于1932-1934年,当时艺术家从圣彼得堡来到了莫斯科。萨默克瓦洛夫几经周折才获批观察他的缪斯女神在建设隧道时的情景。// 《女建筑工人》(1934年)
He recalled: “None of the metro construction workers had any idea that her work and her movements were being observed in the context of the female image. I didn’t even make any sketches on site. Only if I felt an impression was too evanescent did I pencil a few strokes in my small notebook, the import of which only I understood.” // Girl with teagle, 1934

Alexander Samokhvalov

画家回忆道:“没有哪个地铁建设工人意识到,我对她工作和行动的观察是为了捕捉女性劳动形象。我甚至没在现场画过任何草图。只有当我觉得印象快消失时,才用铅笔在小笔记本上画几笔,其中的含义只有我了解。”// 《女孩和卷扬机》(1934年)
The heroines’ movements are marked with beauty and grace, somewhat unexpectedly since the artist deliberately exaggerated the physical stature of the women, imparting almost titanic vigor. In the watercolor “In the Crane,” the girl in a red T-shirt seems to soar into the sky, as if temporarily released from the force of gravity. // In the Crane, 1934

Alexander Samokhvalov

画中女主角的动作美丽而优雅。艺术家专门夸大了女性的身材,这颇为意外地赋予了她无限的活力。水彩画《在起重机上》里的女孩穿着一件火红的T恤,似乎在空中翱翔,仿佛暂时挣脱了重力的束缚。//《在起重机上》(1934年)
The heroine of the watercolor “Before Showering,” who is transferred almost seamlessly into the painting “Girl with a Drill,” is distinguised by an instrinsic sense of resoluteness. She is so majestic and beautiful that Deyneka likened her to a goddess, noting all the same that “she is still our Russian lass.” // Girl with a Drill, 1937

Alexander Samokhvalov

水彩画《沐浴前》的女主人公被几近天衣无缝地转移到作品《拿着钻头的女孩》上,这点可以从她那种坚定的内在气质辨别出来。她是如此庄严而美丽,杰伊涅卡把她比作女神,但也强调“她仍然是我们的俄罗斯姑娘”。//《拿着钻头的女孩》(1937年)
The angles and perspectives of Samokhvalov’s watercolors are energetic, and his subjects resemble the valiant female warriors of old Russian epics. In “Girl Carrying a Fixture,” her sure-footed step is firm yet light, while the contours of the fixture, which dissect the plane of the canvas, reinforce the inner dynamics of the composition. // Girl Carrying a Fixture, 1934

Alexander Samokhvalov

萨默克瓦洛夫水彩画的角度和构图充满活力,他将绘画主角塑造得很像古俄罗斯史诗中英勇的女战士。在《搬设备的女孩》这幅画中,女孩的步伐坚定而轻盈,而分割了画布平面的设备轮廓提升了作品的内在动感。//《搬设备的女孩》(1934年)
Samokhvalov hoped that his watercolors and graphical sketches would form the basis for the frescoes in the Moscow Metro. Some of his images were indeed later used to create the sculptures that adorn Revolution Square station. But not by him and not so brutal. // Check taker, 1928

Alexander Samokhvalov[break]

萨默克瓦洛夫希望他的水彩画和速写能成为莫斯科地铁壁画的一部分。他的一些作品形象后来确实用以创作革命广场站的雕塑,但雕像不是由他设计创作,展现的角度也不是这样直接。// 《收票员》(1928年)
Alexander SamokhvalovThe Russian Museum in St. Petersburg is hosting a Samokhvalov exhibition until the end of March 2015. The retrospective includes 250 works from his early architectural drawings all the way up to 1967’s Appassionata (Builders of Communism) — his last great work, which sums up his entire output. Perhaps the artist contemplated something as such, otherwise why would he have inserted into the hoi polloi in the background some his characters from the golden age of the 1930s — that self-same Girl in a T-shirt? // Girl in a T-shirt

Alexander Samokhvalov

圣彼得堡的俄罗斯博物馆正在举办萨默克瓦洛夫画展。该怀旧展将持续到2015年3月,展出250幅作品,涵盖了画家早期的建筑图纸、“1967年的热情(指共产主义建设者)”以及凝结了他毕生才思的收官之作。艺术家或许对此构思已久并用意深远,不然他为何会在自己画作中的芸芸大众背景里插入他在20世纪30年代黄金时代塑造的人物形象,如穿着T恤的女孩?// 《穿着T恤的女孩》
2015年2月5日
标签: 苏联女性俄罗斯美女艺术画家

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