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灵魂深处的自我对话:12幅俄著名画家的自画像 俄罗斯美女:俄罗斯花样游泳队

从天鹅湖到斯巴达克:莫斯科大剧院精心打造演出服

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Very often the decorations and the costumes are created by one artist, says Daniel Aldoshin, Deputy Director of the Bolshoi's artistic costume division. "If there are two people, then during the creation of the production they meet and discuss the details, so that the decorations and the costumes can co-exist in harmony on stage. The Bolshoi Theater has always aspired to provide for the entire process of the production's creation.”
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Stephanie Berger

莫斯科大剧院服装部门副主任达尼尔•阿尔多申(Daniel Aldoshin)介绍说,(一部剧的)饰物和服装经常出自同一位设计师之手,“如果有两位设计师,他们在设计过程中也会经常共同商讨细节,这样设计出的饰物和服装才能在舞台上和谐地展示出来。大剧院总是力求保证创作过程的完整性。”
It was Simon Virsaladze who created the costumes and decorations for the Bolshoi Theater ballets Swan Lake and Spartacus. As he was creating the costumes for the performances, he had the performers put on the model's costumes and would look at them from the parterre. That is why there is such a difference in how Virsaladze's costumes look from up close and from afar.

Stephanie Berger

西蒙•维尔萨拉泽(Simon Virsaladze, 1909-1989)曾为大剧院的《天鹅湖》和《斯巴达克》设计创作服装和饰物。在为表演者设计服装时,他会让演员穿上样板服装,并从观众席上仔细观察服装的上身效果。这就是为什么维尔萨拉泽设计的服装从近处和远处欣赏时会有如此大的不同。
In most theaters nowadays, costumes are embellished with readymade accessories. After the sketches have been approved, the costume artist, his assistant and our theater's artistic technician start working hard. This is the first stage, in which the technology for making the costume is determined and the selection of colored fabrics is made.

Stephanie Berger

如今,很多剧院里都用现成的饰品装饰服装。设计草图被通过后,服装设计师、他的助手以及莫斯科大剧院的艺术指导便着手演出服的制作。第一道工序是确定服装加工工艺并选择染色布。
Lots of attention is given to the selection of fabrics for the costumes. For example, for ballet they always try to select light fabrics, in which it is comfortable for the dancers to move. The second stage is the creation of the costumes themselves. Very often, during the creation of the costumes, it is necessary to make models (samples), on which lines are marked, proportions are determined and the freedom of movement is checked.

Stephanie Berger

在面料的选择上,设计师需要投入很多精力。例如,他们总是力求为芭蕾舞者选择更轻便的面料。第二道工序则是服装的制作。在服装制作期间,经常需要做出样板,并在上面划线标注,确定尺寸并检查服装是否能让演员活动自如。
Every dancer has his costumes for the performance, costumes that are custom-made for a specific build, especially with soloists. It sometimes happens that during fitting the dancers express their wishes for the costumes, and the artist takes note, especially when it concerns the principal dancers.

Stephanie Berger

每位舞者都有量身定制的演出服,特别是独舞演员。有时舞者在试衣时会表达他们对服装改进的想法,设计师便在一旁做好记录。在设计主演的服装时,更是需要和演员沟通。
The next stage is trying out the costume on stage. Before the general rehearsal, the costumes are tried out during regular rehearsals, in which the final touches are made. After the premiere the costumes come alive and function on their own. Costumes require certain maintenance and storage - a dry, ventilated place, without bright light, in a cool temperature, where there is no humidity.

Stephanie Berger

接下来就是在舞台上试穿服装。在总彩排前,演员会在例行彩排上试穿演出服,在此期间设计师会对服装做最后的修改。首演之后,服装便有了自己的灵气,并在舞台上大放异彩。服装需要专门的保养和存放,应放置于干爽通风的地方,避免受到强光、低温、潮湿的影响。
Costumes have various lifespans; it depends on many factors. Sometimes the artist chooses a fine fabric for the costume, which then needs to be mended and repaired after each performance. On average a costume can go through 20 performances. The Bolshoi has workshops not only dedicated to making costumes, shoes and headwear, to coloring textiles, artistic painting and embroidery, but for dry cleaning, ironing, laundry, and repair of costumes.

Stephanie Berger

不同服装的寿命各不相同,这取决于多种因素。有时设计师选用的服装面料非常娇贵,因而每次演出后都需要对服装进行修补。一件服装通常可用于20场演出。莫斯科大剧院的服装车间不仅制作服装、鞋子、头饰,并为面料染色、绘制花型和织绣,还要干洗、熨烫、清洁和修补服装。
Costumes are put on 15 to 30 minutes before appearing on stage. It depends on the number of performers. For example, if 40 people need to be dressed, it requires more time. To be safe, the last touches to the ballerina's dress are made right before she goes on stage. Of course this creates additional complications while the dancers are dressing, since the costumes must first be undone.

Stephanie Berger

演员在登台前15至30分钟就要换好演出服,具体所需时间取决于演员出场的人数。假如有40名演员需要更衣,那就得预留更长的时间。为保险起见,主要女演员的服装直到登台前还在做最后的修整。当然,在这种时候修改服装会增加额外的麻烦,因为舞者需要先换下演出服。
During the performance it often happens that the dancers have to change costumes quickly, especially if the plot requires it or if the dancer is playing multiple roles. Sometimes the dancer only has 40 seconds to change costumes and then reappear on stage. Even hairstyles, headwear and makeup must be changed. In the ballets Swan Lake and Spartacus there are many costume changes. All the dancers know this by heart and the music serves as a cue.

Stephanie Berger

在演出期间,演员经常需要快速更换服装,特别是出于情节要求或是在一人分饰多角的情况下。演员有时仅有40秒的时间换装,甚至连发型、头饰和化妆都需要改变,然后就要重新出现在舞台上。芭蕾舞剧《天鹅湖》和《斯巴达克》就需要演员多次更换服装。每位舞者对此都铭记在心,以音乐作为换装的提示。
"When the Bolshoi is on tour, we often have to rely on the staff of the hosting theater for costume maintenance and repair (from equipment to personnel). Sometimes there are changes to the female or male rosters upon arrival. The clasps need changing, costumes have to be readapted and redone. Before the Bolshoi actually goes on tour, its representatives are sent to check the stage, the makeup rooms, to check if the decorations will fit, etc.

Stephanie Berger

阿尔多申在采访时说:“莫斯科大剧院在巡演期间经常需要主办剧院来帮忙保养和修补服装(需要借助他们的设备和工作人员)。有时抵达演出地后会改变男女演员的出场名单,因此扣环需要调换,服装需要重新调整和修改。在巡回演出启程之前,莫斯科大剧院会派人先行检查舞台、化妆间以及布景是否适用等。”
More than 200 costumes are used for each performance. They must be taken out, hung up, and put in order. The same with the headwear. Each costume has its own particular headwear. For all presentations and tours the costume and makeup artists must thoroughly know the production, the music and the performers. The costumes must be perfectly prepared for each performer. During tours the team is even more united.

Stephanie Berger

每场演出所需服装一般会超过200套。它们必须打理好、挂好,并按顺序摆放。头饰品也一样,每件服装都有专门的头饰品。无论是常规演出还是巡回演出,服装设计师和化妆师必须全面了解所有的舞台用品、音乐和表演者,必须为每位表演者完美地准备好服装。巡回演出期间,团队更加需要齐心协力。
In the ballet academy dancers are taught to put on their makeup. Of course the more difficult makeup and hairstyles are created by professionals. Let's say that you need to put on a nose. If the performance begins at 8 p.m., then at 5 p.m. the makeup artists start working on the soloists, at 6 p.m. it is the female corps de ballet's turn. An hour and a half before the performance they make up the male soloists and an hour before - the male corps de ballet.

Stephanie Berger

芭蕾舞学院会教授舞者如何化妆。当然,高难度的化妆(如装假鼻子)和发型需要专业人士来完成。如果演出在晚上8:00开始,化妆师会在下午5:00为女独舞演员化妆,6:00为女群舞演员化妆。演出开始前一个半小时为男独舞演员化妆,半小时后为男群舞演员化妆。
The audience does not think about this and does not know many things that happen behind the scenes during a performance. Do I regret losing the fairytale illusion, having seen the other side? Now I know and can see the process from the inside, and it's interesting to watch the performance not from the auditorium but from behind the curtain. You need to love this process, this atmosphere.”

Stephanie Berger

观众不会去想舞台幕后会这么忙,也对此不太了解。“我要注意后台的准备工作,所以会错过舞台上如梦如幻的场景,我会为此而遗憾吗?其实从幕布后面也可以欣赏演出,而且比从观众席观看更为有趣。你需要爱上后台程序,热爱这种氛围。”
“How do we work with local teams when it comes to taking care of costumes during touring? The first days are always about getting to know each other: understanding the language, understanding how the other works. But our common profession unites us, and usually by the end of the tour the local staff knows a few Russian words and some slang.

Stephanie Berger

“我们在巡演期间如何与当地团队一起准备服装?最初几天通常是彼此相互认识:了解对方的语言,了解他们如何工作。我们的共同职业将我们联系在一起。在巡演结束时,当地的工作人员也学会了一些俄语单词和俚语。”
"Americans, for example, have learned chyut chyut (a bit). For instance, it's not necessary to iron the costume so heavily, just chyut chyut. By the end of the tour the team begins speaking one language and we all understand each other very well. Humor helps to relieve tension."

Stephanie Berger

“美国人学会了俄语单词чуть-чуть(意为“略微一点”)。 比如,没必要花太大功夫熨这件衣服 ,只需чуть-чуть(稍微熨一下)。等到巡演结束,团队开始说同一种语言,并且都能很好地相互理解。幽默帮助我们释放压力。”
“Do we speak about politics with our American colleagues? No, we don't touch upon these issues. Perhaps because we have too much work or these are delicate subjects. We are very similar to one another. I've never heard one negative comment. Only goodwill, jokes and professionalism. Art unites."

Stephanie Berger

“我们会与美国同行谈论政治吗?不会,我们不涉及这些话题。也许因为我们有太多工作,也许因为那些话题太敏感。我们非常相似。我从未听到彼此间有负面评价,只有友善、爱开玩笑和专业精神等赞扬。艺术将我们团结在一起。”
2014年8月25日
标签: 莫斯科文化表演芭蕾舞舞蹈

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