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俄罗斯美女:音乐剧演员安娜斯塔希娅•马科耶娃 2013俄罗斯摄影大赛佳作:敬畏自然与生命

神秘的伤痕美:阿伊努女性在唇边纹“微笑”

阿伊努族起源于约公元前1.3万年,分布在俄罗斯和日本。根据该古老民族的传统,阿伊努族女性会在脸部和手臂上绘特殊纹身。最后一个拥有传统纹身的阿伊努女性也在1998年过世。现如今,阿伊努人的传统宗教几乎消失殆尽;只有对熊的崇拜仍然存在,而这也成为一大旅游亮点。
来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
The 18th century saw a genocide of the Ainu in Japan. The area was given to the samurai, who treated the natives very cruelly. It wasn’t long before the Ainu organized a rebellion, but it was crushed. After that, a process began to assimilate the local population: locals were given Japanese classes and forced to adopt Japanese customs, while traditional tattoos, clothing, religion, and sacrifices were prohibited.
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在18世纪,日本的阿伊努族逐渐灭绝。他们生活的地区被划给日本武士,后者非常残酷地镇压当地的阿伊努族人。不久后,阿伊努人民组织起义,但这次起义最终被瓦解。在这之后,日本开始同化当地居民:阿伊努族被要求学习日语,并被强制接纳日本风俗。传统的纹身、服饰、宗教、祭祀却遭到禁止。
Despite the ban, many continued to follow their ancient customs.

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虽然习俗被禁,但许多人仍然继续传承着民族的古老风俗。
In addition to the “smile”, wavy lines were tattooed around the eyebrows and the hands too were decorated.

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除了“微笑纹”外,阿伊努女性的眉毛周围和手部也纹有波浪线。
The last properly tattooed Ainu woman died in 1998.

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最后一个拥有传统纹身的阿伊努女人在1998年去世了。
These days, some ethnic Ainu women wear temporary tattoos during festivals and ceremonies.

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近年来,一些阿伊努女性会在节日、庆典时绘制临时纹身。
The traditional religion of the Ainu has also virtually disappeared — only the ceremonial worship of bears remains, and that’s largely a tourist attraction.

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阿伊努人的传统宗教也几近消失——只有对熊的崇拜仪式仍然存在,而这也成为一大旅游亮点。
The Ainu are an ancient nation, who lived in Russia and Japan and originated about 13,000 years before the Common Era. The women applied unusual tattoos to their face and arms.

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阿伊努族是生活在俄罗斯和日本的古老民族,起源于约公元前1.3万年。阿伊努族女性在脸上和胳膊上绘制特殊纹身。
The Ainu inhabited the island of Hokkaido (the second largest island of Japan), as well as parts of Eastern Russia: the southern half of Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, the bottom third of the Kamchatka Peninsula, and the lower reaches of the Amur.

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阿伊努人居住在北海道(日本第二大岛)以及俄罗斯东部的一些群岛:如库页岛的南半部、千岛群岛、堪察加半岛靠南的三分之一土地、阿穆尔河下游。
A distinctive feature of these people was the tattooing of their lips and arms — from the hand to the elbow joint.

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阿伊努族女性的一个显著特点是唇边和手臂上的纹身——手臂上的纹身从手部一直延伸到肘关节。
Moreover, only women wore tattoos. The incisions on the skin were made by a special ceremonial knife, after which the cuts were rubbed with charcoal.

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在阿伊努族里,只有女性才可以纹身。纹身是由一把特殊的仪式用刀刺出,然后在皮肤的伤口上擦涂木炭。
Girls got their first tattoo at the tender age of seven. It was just a dot pattern around the lips, supplemented with a few more lines every year after.

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女孩在7岁时纹上第一个纹身。这个纹身只是嘴唇周围的点状图形,以后每年都要补刻几条横线。
On her wedding day, the groom would complete the “years-old pattern” by connecting the contours into a "smile". The tattoo on an Ainu woman's face indicated her marital status. According to the patterns on her lips, cheeks, and eyelids, it was possible to determine whether a woman was married and how many children she had.

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在阿伊努族女性的婚礼上,新郎把新娘唇边的轮廓线连成“微笑纹”,这样女性的“岁月纹身”就完成了。阿伊努女性的脸部纹身显示了她的婚姻状况。根据她嘴唇、脸颊和眼睑的纹身,就可能确定这个女性是否已婚以及孩子数量。
A variety of tattoos could also be found between the fingers of female Ainu. As with other peoples, an abundance of tattoos symbolized a woman’s endurance and fertility.

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阿伊努女性的手指间也有各式纹身。与其他民族相同,大量的纹身象征着女人的忍耐力和生育能力。
2014年5月29日
标签: 远东俄罗斯人传统

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