保利娜·马克西莫娃:演艺家庭里的第三代演员 蜗牛不是行动迟缓,它们只是享受慢生活


来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Moskvich-G2. A record-breaking racing car designed by I.A. Gladilin and I.I. Okunev, built in 1956. The Moskvitch G2 set three Soviet speed records in long-distance racing. It competed in the 1959 USSR Championship and won in the under 2500cc class. The Moskvitch G2 was no longer used after 1960 and written off in late 1963. Only two <a href=articles/2012/11/16/communist_automobile_exports_and_their_foreign_fans_20153.html target="_blank"> <u>were built</u> </a>, and both were dismantled for spare parts.


“莫斯科人-G2” 。这款由格拉吉林和奥库涅夫设计的创纪录赛车制造于1956年,曾创下三项长距离拉力赛全苏速度纪录,1959年参加苏联全国锦标赛,并在2500立方厘米以下排量竞赛中胜出。“莫斯科人-G2”1960年后便不再上场征战并于1963年退役。这款车一共只生产了两辆,后来均被拆成了零部件。
Laura. In January 1982, in a small workshop on the outskirts of Leningrad, two young men, Dmitry Parfenov and Gennady Hainov, decided to create a car of their own making. Interestingly, unlike the majority of home-made cars, it was built almost entirely without factory parts — even the engine was designed and hand-built by the two enthusiasts. The car was highly praised by then General Secretary of the Communist Party Mikhail Gorbachev and took part in numerous <a href=articles/2012/06/05/the_soviet_cars_that_emigrated_to_the_west_15805.html target="_blank"> <u>international exhibitions</u> </a>, but was never mass produced.


“劳拉” 1982年1月,两个年轻人德米特里・帕尔菲诺夫(Dmitry Parfenov)和根纳季・哈伊诺夫(Gennadiy Khainov)决定在列宁格勒郊外的一个小汽车修配厂制造自己设计的汽车。有趣的是,与绝大多数自制汽车不同,组装这款车基本上没用到任何原厂配件,甚至连发动机都是这两位汽车发烧友自己设计并手工打造的。这款车获得了时任苏共中央总书记戈尔巴乔夫的好评并参加过许多国际展览,但未能量产。
YUNA. A homemade car conceived by engineer and car enthusiast Yuri Algebraistov in 1969, but assembled only in 1977. The machine was highly praised and won numerous awards at international exhibitions. However, it did not go into mass production. Only two were built, and one survives to this day. On the road since 1977, it has clocked up more than half a million kilometers.


“尤娜” 这是一款由工程师兼汽车发烧友尤里・伊万诺维奇・阿尔格布拉伊斯托夫(Yuriy Ivanovich Algebraistov)于1969年设计的自制汽车,直到1977年才最终组装完成。这款车获得过高度评价并多次在国际展览中获奖,但最终也未能量产。该款车只有两辆,其中一辆保存至今并一直在使用,自1977年起已跑了五十多万公里。
NAMI Okhta. The Okhta automobile was built in 1986-87 at the Leningrad Laboratory of Advanced Prototyping of Light Vehicles by NAMI (the Central Automobile Research Institute). This concept car could seat a maximum of seven: the second and third seat rows were removable, while the front could be rotated through 180°. The rear seat folded into a handy table. At that time, the multiplex system — in a Soviet car no less — was pure science fiction. The only instance, restored after a crash, is on display in a museum.


中央汽车与发动机科研所的“奥赫塔” “奥赫塔”汽车于1986-1987年间由苏联中央汽车与发动机科学研究所下属的列宁格勒未来轿车模型实验室制造,最大容量为七座,而且第二和第三排座椅可拆卸,前排座椅可展开180度,后排座椅能折叠成一个方便的小桌。对那个时代来说,而且是苏联汽车,这一多功能设计简直令人无法想象。目前唯一一辆事故后修复的这款车保存在博物馆。
Istra. This car is one of the most interesting developments by the once popular AZLK: it was developed in the period 1985-1988 under the “Istra” project. It was equipped with automatic transmission, fuel-efficient diesel engine, and air conditioning as standard. But the project never got off the drawing board. Today, a prototype of the vehicle is housed at an abandoned AZLK plant.


列宁共青团汽车厂“2144伊斯特拉” 这款车是当时著名的列宁共青团汽车厂设计的最有趣车型之一,取名为“伊斯特拉”,于1985-1988年间开发,配有自动挡变速箱和更省油的柴油发动机,标配中还带空调,但一直停留在设计层面,其模型目前仍保存在空荡荡的列宁共青团汽车厂。
Gaz-Aero. Created in 1934 by designer Alexei Nikitin as a result of a study entitled “Automobile aerodynamics and streamlining,” which was essentially this young engineer’s student dissertation. The body of the GAZ-A-Aero had a wooden frame and metal casing. Only one was built and its whereabouts are unknown.


“GAZ-A Aero”这款车于1934年由设计师阿列克谢・尼基京(Alexey Nikitin)作为其“汽车流线型研究”工作的成果而设计,也就是说实际上是这位年轻工程师的毕业作品。“GAZ-A Aero”车身为木质框架加金属包层。这款车只有一辆,目前去向不明。
Pobeda-Sport. In total, Podeda-Sport vehicles won three USSR championships (1950, 1955, 1956). It was the first truly successful Soviet sports car. However, that is not surprising when you consider that it was designed by an aeronautical engineer. The car is of interest both as an experimental automotive design by an aircraft constructor and as an example of the peaceful use of military technology.


“胜利跑车” “胜利跑车”共赢得过三项苏联冠军头衔(1950、1955和1956年),是苏联首款真正成功设计的跑车。这其实不足为奇,因为它是由飞机工程师设计的,无论作为飞机设计师在汽车制造领域的发挥还是作为和平使用军工技术的典范都很吸引眼球。
Pangolina. Another homemade sports design, it was the brainchild of engineer Alexander Kulygin, who also produced a six-wheel all-terrain vehicle and a concept car, both for the military. The Pangolina was built in 1980 and very successfully. Together with its creator, it featured in various Soviet racing competitions and even visited the “EXPO 85” International Auto Exhibition in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The car was used in Soviet pop clips. It is now in a museum.


“穿山甲” 这是另一款自制跑车,其设计者是工程师、六轮军用越野车(一款军事领域概念车)设计者亚历山大・库雷金(Alexandr Kulygin),于1980年制造并取得成功。设计师携这款车参加过一系列苏联汽车拉力赛,甚至访问过在保加利亚普罗夫迪夫举行的"EXPO-85"国际车展,曾作为当时苏联明星拍摄剪辑使用,目前保存在博物馆。
ZIS-112. The design of this car was truly avant-garde. In the finest traditions of dream-mobiles, it was a huge, almost six-meter long three-seater with a round radiator grille and a single headlamp, weighing in at two and a half tons. The car was built in 1951 and competed in several races, but in 1955 was decommissioned and ended its life on the scrap yard.


“斯大林汽车厂(吉斯)-112” 这款车设计相当前卫,符合梦幻汽车的优良传统:近六米长的大车身、三排座、圆形进气格栅、独一无二的大灯、重达两吨半,于1951年制造并多次参加拉力赛,但1955年便退役报废,并被遗弃在工厂后院。
Belka. Back in the late 1940s, Yuri Dolmatovsky, brother of Soviet poet Yevgeny Dolmatovsky, pondered the pros of wagon-style design. It was his involvement that led to the development of the first Soviet passenger MPV. Alas, Dolmatovsky’s efforts, which found favorable reviews even in the pages of foreign automotive publications, failed to win support from above. Only a single prototype was made, and even that was scrapped in 1954. Seven years later, the Chevrolet Corvair Greenbrier appeared on the U.S., based on Dolmatovsky’s ideas.


“中央汽车与发动机科研所-013(松鼠)” 尤里・多尔马托夫斯基(Yuriy Dolmatovskiy)是苏联诗人叶甫根尼・多尔马托夫斯基(Evgeniy Dolmatovskiy)的兄弟,早在上世纪四十年代末就开始思考车身布局优势问题,苏联首款单座轿车正是在他的参与下开始开发的。但尽管多尔马托夫斯基的热情甚至在国外汽车报刊上都受到追捧,却未能获得上级领导的支持。这款单座车型后来未能投入生产,而且设计出的那辆车也于1954年被当做废物利用。然而,时隔七年后美国人推出了雪佛兰科维尔绿蔷薇(Chevrolet Corvair Greenbrier)车型,其中便使用了多尔马托夫斯基的设计理念。
VNIITE PT. Back in the 1950s, Soviet experts understood the need for a specialized taxi car. Heeding their opinion, the Council of Ministers issued a decree in 1962 on the development of a minivan. Only one instance was built, since production was deemed unprofitable. But take a look at the Nissan NV200 Taxi, coursing the streets of New York and London, and you’ll be hard pressed not to notice a whole heap of similarities with the Next Generation Taxi from VNIITE (the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Technical Aesthetics).


全苏技术美学科学研究所的“未来出租车” 苏联专家早在上世纪五十年代就意识到应设计一种专业化出租车。苏联部长会议听取了专家们的意见并做出了开发微型出租车的决定。令人遗憾的是,这款车的生产被认为是无利可图,只生产了一辆。但看看今天穿梭于纽约和伦敦街头的尼桑NV200出租车,不难发现其中与全苏技术美学科学研究所设计的未来出租车有着众多相似之处。
Gaz-Torpedo. Another sports concept car from Soviet aircraft builders. In 1951, attempting to create a new vehicle, aeronautical engineers designed a new body completely from scratch. Using the same aircraft materials (duralumin and aluminium), designer A. Smolin built a tear-shaped streamlined body 6.3 m long, 2.07 m wide, and 1.2 m high, weighing a total of 1100 kg. Unfortunately, the car did not stand out for its speed and remained a prototype, but one survives to this day and is now on museum display.


“GAZ-鱼雷” 这是苏联飞机制造厂设计的又一款概念跑车。1951年,航空工程师在开发新型汽车时设计出了一种全新车身,所使用的都是航空材料:硬铝和精钢、A设计。斯莫林设计了一种水滴状流线型车身,长6.3米、宽2.07米、高1.2米,重量只有1.1吨。令人遗憾的是,由于无法达到特别快的速度,因此这款车并未量产,但在为数不多的几辆车中有一辆得以留存至今,目前保存在博物馆里。
标签: 汽车重返苏联