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俄罗斯人生活的众生相 细看帕列赫村的微画

俄罗斯芭蕾舞丑小鸭变天鹅的荆棘之路

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
Being probably the most spectacular and beautiful art, ballet remains a real challenge for those who decide to dance professionally. Why do we need ballet? Why on earth would children sacrifice their childhood in order to become ballet dancers? Why do the Russians keep dreaming about careers in ballet, when so few turn into real swans?
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Ekaterina Petrova

作为最精彩、最美丽的一种艺术,芭蕾舞对于决定走专业舞蹈道路的人来说仍然是相当大的挑战。我们为什么需要芭蕾舞吗?孩子们为了成为芭蕾舞演员而牺牲自己的童年,究竟是为什么呢?既然只有极少的人才能成为真正的天鹅,为什么俄罗斯人还始终梦想着成为职业芭蕾舞演员呢?
There are many paths to ballet. Children often make the life-changing decision on their own, even before they start school. “I saw Swan Lake in Chelyabinsk when I was five. I was struck by the fact that it felt just like a fairytale; something refined, elegant and distant – something you can’t touch. After the performance, I was set on what I wanted to do with my life, and it wasn’t some kind of kid’s pipe dream,” says Mariinsky Ballet Company soloist Anastasia Kolegova.

Ekaterina Petrova

有很多途径通往芭蕾舞。孩子们往往是自己做出改变一生的决定的,甚至是在他们上学之前。“我五岁的时候在车里雅宾斯克看了《天鹅湖》。我感到很震惊,它感觉就像是一个童话,精致,优雅,却很遥远 - 是你触及不到的。演出结束后,我就决定了我想用一生去做的事情,拿不是什么孩子的白日梦。”马林斯基芭蕾舞团的独舞演员阿纳斯塔西娅·科列戈娃。
Little has changed over the past 20 years. If you want to make it as a ballet dancer, the road is pretty much the same for everyone. The biographies of prima ballerinas and principal dancers are filled with stories, when girls and boys, enchanted by the beauty they saw on screen, danced near the television trying to copy the moves.

Ekaterina Petrova

过去的20年里几乎什么都没有改变。如果你想成为芭蕾舞演员,那么对每个人来说道路几乎都是一样的。首席芭蕾舞女演员者和主要舞者的履历中都充满了故事,男孩子和女孩子们被屏幕上的美丽舞蹈迷住了,于是在电视机前跳舞,想要模仿电视里的动作。
Children who have caught dance fever try themselves in any way they can. Yan Godovsky, leading soloist at the Bolshoi Theatre, was accepted into ballet school after winning a ballroom dancing competition at summer camp.

Ekaterina Petrova

痴迷于芭蕾舞的孩子会抓住任何机会表现自己。莫斯科大剧院的首席独舞演员,彦·戈多夫斯基就是在夏令营里去的了交际舞比赛冠军侯被接纳仅芭蕾舞学校的。
But sometimes it’s their parents’ call. Standout ballet dancer Natalya Osipova made the transition from artistic gymnastics to ballet because she “didn’t want to hurt her mum’s feelings”. A child born into a ballet family doesn’t have many options.

Ekaterina Petrova

不过有时候父母的意愿也不容忽视。杰出的芭蕾舞蹈家娜塔莉娅·奥西波娃放弃艺术体操而选择芭蕾舞,就是因为她“不想伤害她妈妈的感情”。芭蕾舞剧家庭出生的孩子是没有太多自主选择的余地的。
Yekaterina Shipulina, leading soloist at the Bolshoi Theatre: “My sister and I spent our childhood behind the curtains watching mum and dad. We knew exactly what we wanted to do when we grew up.” Once the decision has been made, the child has to grow up very fast. It turns out that the beauty we see on TV is a result of many years of hard training, day in and day out.

Ekaterina Petrova

叶卡特琳娜·施普丽娜( Yekaterina Shipulina )是莫斯科大剧院的独舞演员,她说道:“我和姐姐的童年是在窗帘后面看着妈妈和爸爸跳舞度过的。所以等我们长大以后,我们很清楚我们想做什么。”一旦作出了决定,孩子就要非常快地成熟起来。原来,我们在电视上看到的美丽是经过多年的艰苦训练才达到的。
The stressful life of a ballet dancer starts with getting into ballet school. Children have to go through rigorous entrance examinations, where their health, build, flexibility, coordination and posture are checked, alongside their musicality and the ability to twist their feet. Screening committees used to travel around the Soviet Union in search of gifted children, whom they duly found in all corners of the country, even in most far-off villages. Such committees are a rarity these days.

Ekaterina Petrova

芭蕾舞演员的紧张生活是从进入芭蕾舞学校开始的。孩子们必须通过严格的入学考试,他们的健康程度,身材,柔韧性,协调性和体态都要经受考核,此外还有他们的音乐能力和扭动脚的能力。过去筛选委员会会遍历苏联各地,寻找芭蕾舞的天才儿童,他们在全国的各个角落都有过发现,甚至是在最偏远的村庄里。如今这样的委员会已经极为稀有了。
There used to be dozens and even hundreds of applicants for a single place in ballet schools, especially in the Moscow and St Petersburg Ballet Academies. But this is only true of girls now. There is a shortage of boys in ballet, and not just in Russia: parents are not ready to let their sons pursue a ballet career when there are professional sports with substantially more money up for grabs.

Ekaterina Petrova

过去芭蕾舞学校的一个名额会有几十个,甚至是上百个学员申请,莫斯科和圣彼得堡的芭蕾舞学院更是如此。不过现在只对女孩是这样了。愿意学芭蕾舞的男孩子很少,不仅是俄罗斯是这样:父母不希望他们的儿子去走职业芭蕾舞演员的生涯,职业运动员能挣的钱要多得多。
Also, young men used to be released from mandatory military service if they worked in a ballet company, but the quotas have since been abolished. The problem of draft-age men is tackled at the level of the Ministry of Defence, “which can satisfy requests from the Ministry of Culture and local authorities.” Many of the academy students are screened out; a D in classics for boys, or a few additional pounds for girls, could mean they get shipped off to regular schools before they graduate.

Ekaterina Petrova

此外,过去年轻男子如果在芭蕾舞团工作,是可以免除强制性兵役的,但现在这一待遇被取消了。役龄男子的问题在国防部这一层就解决了,“这可以满足文化部和地方政府部的要求。”许多舞蹈学院的学生都被筛选出来,成绩不佳的男孩子,或是一些体重超标的女孩子,可能意味着他们会在毕业前被转到普通学校去。
The harsh curriculum (which consists of a full school load plus daily ballet practice, as well as special subjects such as the history of ballet and piano lessons) leaves no time for the kids to be, well… kids. Those who come from other cities find it hard to adapt to their new lives without their parents. Well-known ballerina Svetlana Zakharova recalls her schooldays: she was sent to boarding school, where she shared a room with seven other girls. Her childhood ended in an instant, and the struggle for survival began.

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

学业的压力很重(包括全部的教学课业,加上每日的芭蕾舞练习,此外还有如芭蕾舞史和钢琴课),孩子就没有时间玩耍了。来自其他城市的孩子很难适应没有了父母的新生活。著名的芭蕾舞演员斯维特兰娜·扎克哈洛娃回忆她的学生时代:她被送到寄宿学校,和另外七个女孩子同居一室。她的童年就在瞬间结束了,开始为了生存而奋斗。
The children work 24/7 and have to meet impossible requirements. The main challenge is to combine technique with artistry. A Russian ballet website describes the problem: “the job of a dancing school is not so much to train a child to dance (which can be done in much less time), as it is to turn his or her body into an instrument to create an image on stage.”

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

孩子们不能有片刻的休息,必须达到不可能的要求。最大的困难是将舞蹈技巧与艺术性结合起来。俄罗斯的一家芭蕾舞网站是这样描述这个问题的:“舞蹈学校的工作与其说是训练孩子如何跳舞(这可以在很短的时间实现),不如说是把他或她的身体变成在舞台上创造一个形象的工具。”
Theatre prima ballerina Evgenia Obraztsova understands how professional perfection is attained: “I was beaten when I failed to place my feet in the fifth position, when I was short of a perfect knee or lift. To cheat on lifts was a criminal offence back then.” The competition is fierce: a child understands at a very early age that there are more gifted competitors around, and the teachers point these children out. Only real fighters manage to survive.

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

剧院首席芭蕾舞女演员伊芙吉尼娅·奥布拉兹索娃( Evgenia Obraztsova )明白要如何达到专业性的完美:“如果我的脚没有达到第五位,或是我的膝盖不完美或抬腿不好,我就会挨打。抬腿不到位在那时候简直是刑事犯罪。”竞争是激烈的:孩子很早就会意识到,身边有许多更有天赋的竞争对手,老师会把这样的孩子指出来的。只有真正的战士才能生存下来。
The paradox is that it is during this period that students begin to really understand their work and why they are here. It is something fundamentally different from the joy of a child who has seen a beautiful dance, or the pleasure of pleasing their parents. It is a conscious decision; the children begin to understand why they tolerate bleeding feet and lack of sleep.

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

矛盾的是,学生们是在这个时期才开始真正认识他们的工作和他们来到这里的原因的。这完全不同于孩子们欣赏优美舞蹈的喜悦,和取悦他们父母的快乐。这是个经过深思熟虑的决定,孩子们开始明白,为什么他们要忍受脚部出血和睡眠不足。
It coming up to graduation; the students are getting ready for their final exams and the school is shaking in excitement – people are wondering whether they have been accepted at their choice of ballet companies. Graduates are told scary (and exaggerated) stories of the hard times that dancers are given in theatres. They say they put glass in your pointe shoes, they cut your costumes, and you can only climb to the top if you have connections.

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

马上就要毕业了,学生们准备好了迎接期末考试,学校在兴奋中颤抖,人们都在猜测是否已被他们所选择的芭蕾舞团接受了。毕业生听说了舞者在剧院所经历的恐怖(有夸张成分)而艰辛的故事。他们说,他们会在你的芭蕾舞鞋里放碎玻璃,割坏你的演出服,你只有靠关系才能爬到最顶层。
Most of the graduates will continue in less important troupes, some will move to foreign companies (where Russian dancers are in demand) or graduate without being picked up by a ballet company. The standard situation for a free agent is as follows: “You go to a casting and see the crowd of hopefuls. First, it’s the bar, they then tell you ‘Go on’, so you go to the centre of the room, perform a routine and they either say “Sorry, bye”, or “Go on”. Finally, five people are left out of 35.”

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

大部分毕业生会继续在不太重要的剧团演出,有些会去外国公司(那里需要俄罗斯舞蹈演员),或者毕业了却没有芭蕾舞团要。成为自由舞者的标准的情况是这样的:“你去试镜,看到同样来试镜的人群。首先是在吧台那里等着,他们会告诉你“去吧”,你就走到房间的中间,表演一段规定动作,然后他们要么说“对不起,再见” ,或者是“接着跳”。最后,35个人里只留下5个。
The lives of young artists are filled with agony and ecstasy, unavoidable injuries, intrigues, victories at ballet competitions, the part of the third armour-bearer at a matinee for kids, or that of Odette and Odile. There will be dreams of coveted roles and the everyday routine of ballet practice, important tours and agonising waits for new roles in long queues alongside their colleagues. They will crave the applause of the audience and retire at 40 with a miserable ballet pension. But if you’re really lucky, the ugly duckling will one day turn into a magnificent swan; the symbol of Russian ballet.

Mikhail Mordasov / Focus Pictures

年轻艺术家的生活充满了痛苦和狂喜,不可避免的受伤,尔虞我诈,在芭蕾舞大赛上的胜利,在儿童的日场演出里演龙套,或者是扮演黑天鹅少女。他们会梦想着令人垂涎的角色,做日常的芭蕾舞练习,重要巡回演出,还有和他们的同事一起排队等待新角色的痛苦。他们会渴望得到观众的掌声,不愿在40岁退休领取微薄的芭蕾舞退休金。克是如果你足够幸运,丑小鸭终有一天会变成一个美丽的天鹅,那是俄罗斯芭蕾舞的象征。
2013年3月3日
标签: 教育孩子芭蕾舞

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