描绘了罗曼诺夫皇室生活的宫廷画家米哈伊·季奇 女性的人生选择:五个俄罗斯普通家庭的特写


来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
The Arctic, Earth's northernmost region, covers the continental margin of Eurasia and North America and almost the entire Arctic Ocean, at the heart of which lies the North Pole.

Mark Troyanovsky / Courtesy of MAMM

Over the centuries the Arctic’s icy hush has hypnotized travelers and scholars. Back in the late 16th century Dutchman Willem Barents organized three expeditions in search of a north-east passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Sergey Anisimov / Courtesy of MAMM

数世纪以来,北极的冰冷宁静令旅行者和学者心驰神往。早在16世纪后期,荷兰人威廉·巴伦支(Willem Barents)就三次探索从大西洋到太平洋的东北航线。
In the mid-18th century Captain Vitus Bering, commander of the Russian Navy, discovered the strait between Siberia and North America. And the late 19th - early 20th century saw the beginning of nothing less than a pilgrimage: Fridtjof Nansen, Roald Amundsen, Robert Peary, Frederick Cook and various Russian polar explorers, among them Eduard Toll and Georgy Sedov, all tried to conquer the North Pole.

Vladimir Maximov / Courtesy of MAMM

在18世纪中期,俄罗斯海军指挥官维塔斯·白令(Vitus Bering)船长发现了西伯利亚和北美之间的海峡。从19世纪末到20世纪初,这种探索成为一种朝圣:弗里乔夫·南森(Fridtjof Nansen)、罗尔德·阿蒙森(Roald Amundsen)、罗伯特·佩里(Robert Peary)、弗雷德里克·库克(Frederick Cook)。很多俄罗斯极地探险者也都探索北极,其中就包括爱德华·托尔(Eduard Toll)和格奥尔吉·谢多夫(Georgy Sedov)。他们所有人都曾尝试征服北极。
By the end of the 19th century the first photographers had begun to join polar expeditions, believing in the limitless possibilities that the advent of photography would open up to scientists. Researchers now had a reliable way of documenting data that would allow their travels to be reported more accurately.

Pavel Kosenko / Courtesy of MAMM

Polar explorers and polar pilots were among the most respected and renowned people in Russia and elsewhere. Everyone knew their names. Late November saw the 120th anniversary of the birth of Hero of the Soviet Union and Arctic trailblazer Ivan Papanin (pictured). In 1934 a polar station was set up on Cape Chelyushkin under his command. Three years later, in 1937, Papanin took charge of the world's first drifting station, named the Severny Polyus (North Pole).

Viktor Temin / Courtesy of MAMM

在俄罗斯及世界其他地方,极地探险者和北极飞行员都是最受人尊敬的著名人物,他们的名字无人不晓。今年十一月下旬是苏联英雄、北极开拓者伊凡·帕帕宁(Ivan Papanin)(如图)诞辰120周年。1934年,在他的指挥下,一座极地站在切柳斯金角建成。三年后的1937年,帕帕宁主持世界上首座基地漂流科考站“北极”的工作。
Pilots Anatoly Liapidevsky, Sigizmund Levanevsky, Mavriky Slepnyov and others were the first to be awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for rescuing the expedition of Otto Schmidt.

Sergey Anisimov / Courtesy of MAMM

飞行员阿纳托利·利亚皮杰夫斯基(Anatoly Liapidevsky)、西格蒙·列瓦涅夫斯基(Sigizmund Levanevsky)、马夫里基·斯列普尼奥夫(Mavriky Slepnyov)等人因救了奥特·施密特的极地探险队而成为苏联首批被授予英雄称号的人员。
They were the subject of films and books, and a source of national pride. Several generations were raised on the films “The Chelyuskinites,” “Two Captains,” and “Taymyr Calls You.”

Vasily Anisimov / Courtesy of MAMM

This century has seen a revival of interest in the Arctic, provoked less by conquest and development than by environmental issues and the preservation of the region’s unique natural resources, which could disappear entirely within the next 100 years due to climate change.

Sergey Anisimov / Courtesy of MAMM

In 2013 the Prirazlomnaya rig, an ultra-modern oil drilling platform, was put into operation. To date, it is the only station producing oil on the Russian Arctic shelf.

Lev Granovskiy / Courtesy of MAMM

For modern explorers, the Arctic is, first and foremost, a unique ecological system. The photos of Sergei Anisimov, Sergei Dolya and Sergei Makhalov depict its sublime landscapes, boundless icy plains and exclusive fauna, the preservation of which is one of humanity’s most urgent priorities.

Sergey Anisimov / Courtesy of MAMM

对于现代探险者而言,北极首先是一个独特的生态系统。谢尔盖·阿尼西莫夫(Sergei Anisimov)、谢尔盖·多尔雅(Sergei Dolya)和谢尔盖·马哈洛夫(Sergei Makhalov)的照片描绘了它的壮丽景色、无垠冰原和独有动物。对北极动物的保护是人类最紧迫的首要课题之一。
The Arctic Exhibition is part of the Days of the Arctic Festival in Moscow. It takes place from November 18 through December 14 at the Multimedia Art Museum (MAMM) in Moscow.

Sergey Dolya / Courtesy of MAMM

标签: 环境科学