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“一个人的村庄”:乌拉尔山旁的独居老人守望古村 俄罗斯美女:歌手和设计师——安娜•杜博维斯卡娅

达吉斯坦手工艺者编织的精美地毯

来源: 《透视俄罗斯》
The best wool rugs from Russia are woven in Tabasaran ( a province in the south of Dagestan). This is where they make hand-made tufted carpets using a centuries-old design.
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Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

俄罗斯最好的羊毛地毯出自达吉斯坦共和国南部的塔巴萨兰省,按照古老的设计手工编织而成。
The people of Tabasaran who live in Dagestan are the only ethnicity in Russia that continues a traditional art form: rug weaving.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

居住在达吉斯坦的塔巴萨兰人是俄罗斯唯一延续了地毯编织这一传统工艺的民族。
At one time, rugs were not as ornate as they are now and weren’t much to decorate a room with. The nomadic peoples that inhabited oriental countries first made them as practical object that helped keep their homes warm, were easy to transport, and stayed intact for many years.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

以前的地毯并不像现在这样华丽,也不多用于房屋装饰。由于地毯便于携带,而且易于保存,因此出于实用性考虑,生活在东方的游牧民族第一个开始制作地毯。
Over time, rugs began to include patterns that became more complex and elegant. Their level of upkeep was a mark of their owner’s status.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

久而久之,地毯的样式逐渐开始复杂,而且更为精致。地毯的保养水平彰显着其主人的地位。
These days, rugs are a must in every Dagestani home. In poorer families, lint-free sumacs lied on the floor. Wealthier families covered piled their floors high with heavy rugs.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

近年来,地毯成为了每一个达吉斯坦人家的必需品。贫穷的家庭一般将无棉漆树制地毯铺在地板上,而富有的家庭则在地板上铺着厚重的细毛地毯。
Rugs are made here in almost every home. If they’re not for sale, they’re made for use at home.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

几乎每个家庭都会制作地毯,不是用来出售,就是留作自用。
In this home, five masters are finishing weaving a large rug. They worked on it for more than 6 months!

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

这个家庭中的五位大师正在完成一张大地毯的编织。制作这张地毯已花费他们六个多月的时间了!
In order to make a rug, you must first make a base. Dense cotton threads are tightly wound around parallel frames. Several women then sit at the machine and start their main work.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

编织地毯之前,必须先制作一个基底。密集的棉线紧紧地缠绕在平行架子之上,几个女人坐在机器前开始她们的主要工作。
Using a special hook, they tie a knot made of colored yarn around each thread. These masters work at a breath-taking pace.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

他们使用一种特殊的钩子将彩色细纱线系成结。这些大师们在以惊人的速度工作着。
When one row is finished, they press it using a heavy comb. Uneven ends are cut using large scissors. This is how they attain piles of a certain depth.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

编完一行后,他们使用沉重的梳子来压紧地毯,用大剪刀裁掉不均匀的端面。这样就制成了一定厚度的绒面。
In order to make sure they’re don’t make a mistake in the pattern, the women check a pattern on a cheat sheet. However, more experienced rug weavers know the pattern by heart.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

为了确保编织样式无误,女人们会使用对照图来进行检查。不过,经验丰富的编织者已将样式熟记于心。
Rugs made from wool colored using natural color agents are considered to be the most valuable. The skills for knowing how to get this or that color have been passed on from generation to generation. Many different colors can be made using plants, minerals, or insects.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

自然染色的羊毛地毯被认为是最有价值的。各种颜色的获得技巧及制造工艺代代相传下来。通常使用植物、矿物或者昆虫获得不同的颜色。
The women have finished their work. After one of them has cut the main threads, they ceremoniously take their beautiful rug into the courtyard.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

女人们结束了工作。在其中一人剪断主线后,她们颇为隆重地将漂亮的地毯拿到院中。
The rug should now be sent to its owner. He or she will be able to enjoy for no less than 300 years.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

现在应该把地毯寄给它的主人了,地毯可以使用不下300年的时间。
The mastery of rug weaving is traditionally passed on from one generation to another. Girls start watching their mothers at work. In Tabasaran families, women were the family’s primary breadwinners since they earned more money than the men.

Nikolay Rykov, Dmitry Chistoprudov

地毯编织作为一种传统代代相传下来。女孩儿们从小就看到母亲编织地毯。在塔巴萨兰家庭中,由于女性赚的钱比男性多,所以是家里的主要经济支柱。
2014年11月10日
标签: 家庭北高加索民族传统艺术

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